by Michelle Erica Green
Weinberg, Wendy. Beyond Imagining. New York: Women Make Movies, 1991.
Superb Academy Award-nominated short film about Anderson's life and loves, including interviews with Jackson Bryer and others who knew her, plus lengthy quotes from her autobiographical volumes, magazines and letters.
Allan, Tony. The Glamour Years. New York: Bison, 1977.
"Paris 1919 - 1940," as the book is subtitled, has been captured by Allen in all its wild glory. Margaret Anderson's life and accomplishments are touched upon briefly in an account of literary schools and scandals which rocked Paris during the period.
Allen, Frederick Lewis. Only Yesterday. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1931.
Allen's self-described "informal history of the 1920's" discusses many cultural, political, and social phenomena of the period, beginning with the war and ending with the effects of the Crash of '29. Although Allen has been accused by historians of enlarging the truth about political scandals and social trends, his account of the period is lively and contains accounts of many issues dealt with in the Little Review from a revisionist Thirties perspective.
Anderson, Chester G. James Joyce. London: Thames and Hudson, 1967.
A concise and fascinating look at Joyce and those he knew, including Anderson, Jane Heap and Ezra Pound. Discusses the Ulysses controversy and trial and the subsequent outrage of the literary community. Contains 124 illustrations, among which are proofs from Ulysses as published in the Little Review and many photographs of Paris during the Teens and Twenties.
Anderson, Elliott, and Kinzie, Mary. The Little Magazine in America: A Modern Documentary History. Yonkers: Pushcart, 1978.
A history of little magazines by journalists and scholars. Comments by Felix Pollak in "An Interview on Little Magazines" include an insulting description of Anderson but enormous praise for the Little Review, and an illuminating discussion of journalism in the Twenties.
Anderson, Margaret C. The Fiery Fountains. New York: Hermitage, 1953. New York: Horizon, 1969.
This second volume of Anderson's autobiography contains Anderson's lively account of her life with Georgette Leblanc and her exploration of religion, philosophy and enlightenment under the guidance of the philosopher and mystic Georgi Ivanovitch Gurdjieff. Anderson offers her opinions on love and art, reflects on the ultimate failure of the Little Review, and gives insight into the decline of her interest in the magazine. Her skills as a writer are powerfully displayed in her moving recollection of Leblanc's decline and death.
_____. Forbidden Fires. Tallahassee: Naiad, 1996.
Anderson's novella of growing up lesbian and finding joy, edited by Professor Mathilda Hills, with an introduction about the discovery of the manuscript that fills in many gaps in Anderson's autobiography.
_____. My Thirty Years' War. New York: Covici, Friede, 1930. New York: Hermitage, 1953. Westport: Greenwood, 1971. New York: Horizon, 1969.
The hilarious first volume of Anderson's autobiography tells the fantastic story of the Little Review from Anderson's conception of it to its final issue in 1929. Anderson briefly discusses her childhood and background, then plunges into a description of her whirlwind life at the literary center of America. She also provides enlightening portraits of everyone she knew, including Joyce, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and particularly her coeditors, Heap and Pound. The Ulysses trial and its aftermath and the riots of the Dadaists in Paris are described with unparalleled humor. Entertaining and informative, the book reveals a great deal about the temperaments of the times and the author as it reflects the evolution of both.
_____. The Strange Necessity. New York: Horizon, 1969.
This final volume of Anderson's autobiography contains her definitive attitudes about art and intellect, her reflections on her life and her work, and her opinions on the future of art and society. She also discusses her friendships with Dorothy Caruso and Solita Solano and recommends culture to the reader. Less frenetic and cheerful than her other books, Anderson's final statement reflects her pain at the loss of her friends and her occasional unhappiness during her later years. A pensive, sentimental, emotional apologia by a legend.
_____. This Thing Called Love.
An unpublished novella by Anderson, based partly upon an unrequited love affair. Early drafts received raves from her associates and interest from her editor, but the final manuscript was never submitted and the piece was never published. Parts of it are adapted in Forbidden Fires.
_____. The Unknowable Gurdjieff. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1956. York Beach: Samuel Weiser, 1983.
Anderson's account of her work with Gurdjieff and the people she encountered through her studies reveals a great deal about herself, her friends and her fellow students, but the brilliant, eccentric Gurdjieff remains elusive. Reflects on the difficulties and downfall of the Little Review.
Anderson, Margaret C., ed. The "Little Review" Anthology. New York: Hermitage, 1953. New York: Horizon, 1969.
"To express the emotions of life is to live; to express the life of emotions is to make art." Using this credo, Anderson presents the best and most notorious of the Little Review, including art, essays, editorials, poetry, prose, famous fiction, and the full Ulysses controversy, enlivened with her own inimitable critiques and praises. Although none of the wonderful art published in the magazine is included, the entire final issue, with reactions from various artists and intellectuals to the end of the decade, is reproduced.
Antheil, George. Bad Boy of Music. Garden City: Doubleday, Doran and Company, 1945.
The autobiography of the infamous composer and pianist, presented to Paris society by Anderson when she employed his skills to incite a riot involving famous figures such as Joyce, Man Ray and Eric Satie, filmed for use in a silent movie starring Leblanc. Anthiel appreciated the attention she drew to him and "adored her from a great distance." A wonderful account of artistic life in Paris.
Arlen, Michael J. Exiles. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1970.
Arlen's account of his life in the literary and social whirl in 1920's Paris and the out-of-control lifestyle which eventually destroyed his own life and writing and that of Fitzgerald and so many others. A striking portrait of "the picture darkened."
Baggett, Holly A., ed. Dear Tiny Heart: The Letters of Jane Heap and Florence Reynolds. New York: NYU, 2000.
Heap's letters to her friend and lover trace her intellectual development, self-identity and relationships as well as the emerging modernist movement and her place at the center of it. A great deal of intimate detail about Heap's relationship with Anderson, here called "Mart," emerges.
Baker, Carlos. Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1968.
This somewhat tedious but thorough popular biography reveals a wealth of information about Hemingway's background and early years, including his publication in the Little Review. Although Anderson and Hemingway had professional differences, she published his earliest stories in America and he provided the money for her return to America at the outbreak of World War II. Quotes Hemingway on Anderson and Anderson on Hemingway (on sports, naturally).
Beach, Sylvia. Shakespeare and Company. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1956.
The memoirs of the woman who succeeded in publishing all of Ulysses despite harsh censorship troubles like those which plagued the Little Review. Beach, who had a library for the use of expatriate writers, provided financial and social support to the American community in Paris. While her home served as a meeting place for writers, editors, artists, and bohemians, her fundraising kept their work in circulation. She sings the praises of Anderson and Heap and their valiant efforts to publish Joyce.
Benstock, Shari. Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940. Austin: University of Texas, 1986.
A study of the influential, expatriate female writers, artists, publishers and patrons of Paris, including Anderson and Heap and most of their American associates. Benstock deals more with the private lives than the professional achievements of the women, calling the Little Review editors "well-known homosexuals" and discussing very little about the magazine's accomplishments from its Chicago and New York days.
Berkinow, Louise. Among Women. New York: Harmony, 1980.
A study of the roles of women in literature, in both fictional and nonfictional accounts of their times. Contains insights into the lives of many women writers of the Twenties, including Anderson's, in a chapter on the lesbian community of the period in Paris. Additional discussion about attitudes toward women held by other writers, including several published in the Little Review, contributes to an understanding of the feminism of the decade.
Bogan, Louise. Achievement in American Poetry: 1900-1950. Chicago:
Henry Regnery, 1951.
From the 20th Century Literature in America series, this book uses the Little Review as an example of extreme modernism in a discussion of the rise of avant- garde poetry. The Romantic/anarchic tendencies of the magazine are presented.
Bowen, Ezra, series editor. This Fabulous Century. 8 Volumes. Chicago: Time-Life Incorporated, 1969. Volume II: 1910-1920.
A chapter on the literary development of America contains a brief note on Anderson's bohemian lifestyle and a more extensive look at the rise of avant-garde literary magazines in Chicago. It also relates the histories of several important artists of the period. The anecdote is amusing and the discussion enlightening.
Boylan, James. 'The World' and the '20's. New York: Dial Press, 1973.
News of The World, a fairly conservative New York newspaper with a wide circulation. In a note on the Ulysses trial, the editors state, "Mr. Sumners wastes his talents on the Little Review, which has neither circulation nor influence."
Brown, Milton W. The Story of the Armory Show. New York: Abbeville, 1988.
The art show that revolutionized the artistic, literary, theatrical and musical worlds, almost singlehandedly ushering in the avant-garde era, is examined by an art expert who first analyzes the actual art, then discusses why it caused such controversy and explores its impact on other media.
Bryer, Jackson Robert. A Trial-Track For Racers: Margaret C. Anderson and The Little Review. Michigan: University Microforms International, 1965.
Bryer's superlative dissertation on Anderson and her magazine includes material from interviews with Anderson and her associates and quotes extensively from the Little Review to discuss artistic trends in the magazine. Excellent analyses of the influence of Ezra Pound, Amy Lowell, and the social climate surrounding the editors.
Budgen, Frank. James Joyce and the Making of 'Ulysses'. Bloomington: Indiana University, 1960.
The story of Ulysses; naturally includes the story of the role the Little Review played in its publication. An interesting account of a writer's struggle to write and publish.
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990.
A study of the categories of gender, sexual preference, psychology, and anatomy through the perspective of French feminism, deconstructive criticism, and radical psychology. Confronts compulsory heterosexuality even in the fin-de-siecle and twenties climates which seemed to permit homosexual behavior.
Callard, D.A. Pretty Good For a Woman. London: Norton, 1985.
"The enigmas of Evelyn Scott," a controversial writer and radical who knew most of the Little Review crowd, including Anderson and Heap and the Baronness. Some of the writing and poetry of the period is reproduced. The commentary on Anderson and the Little Review is positive, but much of the Greenwich Village/Twenties scene is viewed critically .
Carpenter, Humphrey. Geniuses Together: American Writers in Paris in the 1920s. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1988.
"The wildest party of the century," as the book jacket describes it, thoroughly researched and aptly recreated. While the author claims that he will not embellish and will portray "the dark side" of the period, life in Paris sounds better than not, despite ego clashes. The Little Review is mentioned mainly in passing, but Anderson is a recurring figure.
Caruso, Dorothy Park (Benjamin). Dorothy Caruso: A Personal History. New York: Hermitage, 1952.
The autobiography of Caruso, "the last great friendship of (Anderson's) life," written while Caruso and Anderson lived and studied Gurdjieff together. Caruso reveals Anderson's talent for conversation and power for maintaining lasting friendships.
_____. Enrico Caruso: His Life and Death. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1945.
Caruso's biography of her beloved husband reveals her own background, attitudes, and interests, illustrating the traits which drew her toward Anderson and Gurdjieff after the tragic death of the brilliant tenor.
Cleaton, Irene, and Cleaton, Allen. Books and Battles: American Literature, 1920-1930. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1937.
An interesting but incomplete account of difficulties encountered by American writers, editors and publishers in the 1920's. The Ulysses battle is neglected, while the minor difficulties encountered by Sherwood Anderson in finding a publisher are presented with outrage.
Cody, Morrill, with Hugh Ford. The Women of Montparnasse: The Americans in Paris. New York: Cornwall, 1984.
They're all there, though not all the facts are, and some of the portraits are more-or-less condescending or unflattering, but in general this book is a good introduction to the feminine scene on the Left Bank.
Corinne, Tee. Women Who Loved Women. Philadelphia: Pearchild, 1984.
Illustrations from Corinne's poster series of famous lesbians includes portraits of Anderson, Heap, Leblanc, Caruso, Stein, Toklas, Amy Lowell, Natalie Barney, H.D., Bryher, Radclyffe Hall, Virginia Woolf, and many other notables from the Twenties.
Cowley, Malcolm. Exile's Return. New York: Viking, 1951.
A self-proclaimed "literary odyssey of the 1920's," Cowley's account of the rise and fall of the "richest period in American literature" offers insight into the lives and lifestyles of Twenties writers. Nearly everyone published or mentioned in the Little Review is introduced. Told from the perspective of a man who was both active participant and detached observer, the book offers a unique look at the arrival, conquest and collapse of the avant-garde.
Cruikshank, Margaret. Lesbian Studies. Old Westbury: The Feminist Press, 1982.
The history, biography, literature, fiction, poetry, academic background, and study of lesbians in the United States and the world. Anderson is praised for what the author perceives as her openness about her sexual preference, evidenced by her naming her lovers in her autobiography and attempting to publish This Thing Called Love toward the end of her life, when friends of hers such as Janet Flanner were attempting to hide their pasts.
Cunliffe, Marcus. The Literature of the United States. New York: Penguin, 1986.
A British overview and analysis of important American literature. The Little Review is discussed as part of "the coming of age" of poetry and fiction; Anderson's avant-garde affections and Ezra Pound's radicalism are explored. A useful summary, but this British critic's attempts to explain the difficulties of American patriotism in exile and seems forced. The bibliography is
Davies, Stan Gebler. James Joyce. London: Granada, 1982.
This accurate but uninspiring biography chronicles the collaboration of Joyce and the Little Review, including a complete account of the rather ridiculous Ulysses trial and its effects, in deadpan British prose. The preposterous behavior of the censors seems extremely foolish when described in such a logical, factual manner.
Doane, Janice, and Devon Hodges. Nostalgia and Sexual Difference: The Resistance to Contemporary Feminism. New York: Methuen, 1987.
Chapters on "Feminism and the Decline of America" and "The Anxiety of Feminist Influence" introduce concerns about criticism of the twenties, criticism of women writers and editors, and how our "stories of reading" are shaped.
Dos Passos, John. U.S.A. New York: Signet, 1981.
Dos Passos' fictional account of the teens and twenties includes biographies of many real-life celebrities, such as Rudolph Valentino and Henry Ford, and fiction based on the lives of others. Many of the people and events dealt with by Anderson, Heap, and the Little Review put in an appearance, including everything from Isadora Duncan's performances to Joe Hill's shooting. Although the three superb novels in the trilogy, The 42nd Parallel, Nineteen Nineteen and The Big Money, are fictional and must be read as such, the legends of the Twenties are essentially accurate.
Douglas, Ann. The Feminization of American Culture. New York: Knopf, 1977.
A study of what Douglas characterizes as an increased feminist aesthetic in the literature of Victorian America and the effects upon later American writing.
Drinnon, Richard. Rebel In Paradise. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1961.
A biography of Emma Goldman, which discusses the anarchist tendencies of Anderson and the Little Review. Quotes Anderson on Goldman and Goldman on Anderson and gives a colorful portrait of the anarchist scene in Chicago during Anderson's youth.
_____, and Drinnon, Anna Maria. Nowhere at Home. New York: Schocken, 1975.
Letters from the exile of Emma Goldman, which occasionally mention Anderson and the Little Review and talk about literary and theatrical personalities to whom she introduced Goldman in Chicago. Gives insight into the decline of the Anarchist movement as a whole and particularly the loss of interest of its members.
Driscoll, J. Walter, and the Gurdjieff Foundation of California. Gurdjieff: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1985.
This remarkable bibliography refers to all of the writings of Anderson, Heap, Leblanc and Caruso about Gurdjieff, including private letters, as well as containing reviews of their work and their responses to the reviews. This source is a gold mine for anyone interested in Gurdjieff, Ouspensky or their followers.
Ellmann, Richard. James Joyce. London: Oxford, 1959.
An engrossing, exhaustive study of Joyce and his work. Contains the history of Ulysses and the Little Review, including Joyce's feelings about the publication and Anderson's feelings about the epic ("We'll print it if it's the last effort of our lives!").
Faderman, Lillian. Surpassing the Love of Men. New York: William Morrow, 1981.
A provocative, persuasive history of women's emotional, social and sexual relations from the Renaissance to the present. Anderson and The Little Review surface briefly in a discussion of famous lesbians of the '20's, then reappear in a hilarious account of William Carlos Williams' fear, awe and disgust of lesbians as exemplified by his reaction to Anderson's and Heap's apartment in Greenwich Village. The overall historical picture as presented by Faderman is engrossing, readable and thorough.
Falk, Candace. Love, Anarchy, and Emma Goldman. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1984.
A biography of Goldman and her friends and lovers, of whom Anderson was certainly one of the former and possibly one of the latter. The author discusses the relationship between the two women, describes Anderson's frustrations with the anarchist movement and describes the bohemian literary climate at the Little Review.
Fenton, Charles A. Ernest Hemingway: The Early Years. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Cudahy, 1954.
This book analyzes the early influences on and triumphs of Hemingway, including his relationship with Gertrude Stein and publication in the Little Review. An interesting study of a young artist without reflection on the genius he was to become.
Field, Andrew. Djuna. Austin: University of Texas, 1985.
A biography of "the formidable Miss Barnes," and an account of the Greenwich Village/Paris lesbian circle with which both she and Anderson were associated. This superb study reveals intimate details about Anderson and Heap, speculates about some of the crises at the Little Review which led to its demise, and discusses the group of people with whom the editors associated. Destroys some of the myths about Anderson and Heap's relationship put forth by Anderson in her autobiography.
Fitch, Noel Riley. Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation. New York: Norton, 1983.
An enlightening, entertaining account of expatriate Paris centered around Beach and her library. Contains the complete history of the publication of Ulysses, including the Little Review trial, Anderson and Heap's comments, and the eventual triumph of Beach and her friends in printing and circulating a final edition.
Flanner, Janet. An American in Paris. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1940.
Flanner's account of Paris in the Twenties, told through the eyes of a proud American patriot. She knew nearly all the famous exiles, including Anderson, Heap, and most of the Little Review crowd, and comments on the activities and interests of all. An engrossing and well-written portrait of the age.
_____. Darlinghissima: Letters to a Friend. Edited and annotated by Natalia Danesi Murray. New York: Random House, 1985.
Letters spanning several decades to Murray from Flanner, famed as The New Yorker's "Genet" for her longtime column "Letter From Paris." Flanner, who was Anderson's friend and Anderson's fellow Gurdjieff disciple Solano's lover, reveals warm feelings and admiration for Anderson even after they had lost contact for several years. However, commentary on the letters by Flanner's friend Murray attacks Anderson's flashy, affected behavior and her apparent selfishness.
_____. Janet Flanner's World: Uncollected Writings 1932-1975. Edited by Irving Drutman. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979.
This collection of Flanner's work contains essays and comments on many of the people and events connected with Anderson's life. Her New Yorker essay on Anderson, "A Life On a Cloud," is included, along with many other short pieces.
_____. Paris Journal, 1944-1965. Edited by William Shawn. New York: Atheneum, 1965.
Notes taken from Flanner's "Letter From Paris" column discuss Paris after the "American invasion" of the Left Bank and the aftermath of the war, the end of the exile and the devastation of France. Flanner conveys wonderfully the atmosphere of the times and the the colorful importance of the literary figures remaining in Paris.
_____. Paris Was Yesterday. Edited by Irving Drutman. New York: Viking, 1972.
Flanner uses her famed "Letter From Paris" columns to discuss the American artistic community and its decline. Anderson and Heap and the Little Review naturally figure in her discussion.
Ford, Hugh. Four Lives In Paris. Berkeley: North Point, 1986.
A biography of Anderson and three others who lived in Paris in the 1920's and 1930's, presenting their lives, work, and importance. He gives Anderson a great deal of credit for her unusual lifestyle as well as her accomplishments. While Ford's book sadly lacks indexes, footnotes and other resources which would be of great assistance to researchers, his account of Anderson's work, friendships and enthusiasms is readable and very enjoyable. His account of George Antheil's life is also relevant, since Antheil knew Anderson and Leblanc well, and his telling is quite amusing.
_____. The Left Bank Revisited. University Park: Pennsylvania State University, 1972.
"Selections from the Paris Tribune, 1917-1934," include an article on Anderson as "the all-American girl" based on her tastes, energies, and rebellions, as well as an editorial on the final issue of the Little Review. A superb newspaper account of postwar Paris.
_____. Published In Paris. Yonkers: Pushcart, 1975.
A striking account of American work published in Paris in the Twenties and Thirties. Underestimates the importance of the Little Review, but gives insight into the triumphs and problems of publishing during the period and the role played by women publishers. The bibliography provides ample sources for additional study.
Forster, Margaret. Significant Sisters. London: Oxford, 1984.
This account of "the grassroots of active feminism" from 1839-1939 contains chapters on many women who influenced Anderson's feminist leanings, including a detailed biography of anarchist Emma Goldman, Anderson's friend and mentor. Introduces a radical feminist/anarchist perspective on Anderson, whom Goldman perceived as "too chic" for the image of working women the movement was attempting to convey, and adds commentary on the effectiveness of the anarchism of the Little Review period.
Freedman, Estelle B.; Gelpi, Barbara; Johnson, Susan L.; and Weston, Kathleen M., eds. The Lesbian Issue. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1982.
Essays from Signs magazines on lesbianism and feminism, literature, and lifestyle. Looks at Paris in the 1920's, women's literature through the ages, and women pioneers. Anderson enters into a discussion of the life and work of women in the '20's.
Goldman, Emma. Living My Life. Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith, 1982.
The autobiography of Mother Earth herself. Goldman met Anderson in Chicago shortly after Anderson had founded the Little Review and Goldman had created much anarchist scandal. Anderson "converted to anarchism" and rushed off an editorial which created immediate consternation among Little Review supporters. Goldman's account of Anderson's looks, personality and work gives a new angle on the editor.
Gould, Jean. Amy. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1975.
A biography of Amy Lowell, the renowned writer and leader of the Imagist movement who lobbied unsuccesfully to convince Anderson to make her co-editor of the Little Review; after her failure, however, she and Anderson developed a mutual respect and did their best to cooperate professionally. The book contains an amusing portrait of a very young Anderson struggling to get her magazine off the ground.
Grier, Barbara. The Lesbian In Literature. Tallahassee: Naiad, 1981.
A thorough bibliography of lesbianism in literature, containing an alphabetical listing of titles and an index according to the level of lesbian content. The writings of Anderson and Heap's as well as those of their friends, lovers and associates, are included.
Gurdjieff, G.I. (Georgi Ivanovitch). All and Everything. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964.
The "first series" of Gurdjieff's philosophical writings. followed by Meetings With Remarkable Men. An outline of Gurdjieff's teachings on how to live a complete life.
_____. Beelzebub's Tales To His Grandson. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1978.
"An Objectively Impartial Criticism of the Life of Man." Gurdjieff's masterwork, outlining his philosophy and presenting his formula for a richer and more fulfilled intellectual existence. This powerful work had lasting impact on the lives of Anderson and Heap, who accepted Gurdjieff's gospel and changed their perspectives.
_____. Life Is Real Only Then, When "I Am". London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981.
Gurdjieff's final work before his death. outlining his methods for understanding the self and its power. Since Anderson and Heap both suffered nervous breakdowns andunderwent identity crises before studying with Gurdjieff, the appeal of his teachings to them becomes evident through this volume.
_____. Meetings With Remarkable Men. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1974.
Compiled at Fontainbleau by Gurdjieff from his own teachings, the philosopher uses the examples of men he encountered in his life to demonstrate the origins and uses of his philosophy. This book was developed during sessions with students, including Anderson and Heap.
_____. Views From the Real World: Early Talks of Gurdjieff. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1973.
This collection of Gurdjieff's early lectures across Europe and America contains the speeches he made in New York in the Twenties which brought Anderson and Heap into his circle of disciples, as well as discussions of his audiences' reactions. The appeal to artists and intellectuals of his lucid, logical lectures becomes evident upon reading his words.
Haight, Mary Ellen Jordan. Walks in Gertrude Stein's Paris. Salt Lake City: Peregrine, 1988.
A walking tour of the Paris of Stein -- and Anderson, Joyce, Pound, Beach, Hemingway, Fitzgerals, etc. Photos and descriptions of the homes and studios of the important literary and artistic personages. Gives a real sense of who was where and in relation to whom on the Left Bank.
Halls, W.D. Maurice Maeterlinck. Oxford: Clarendon, 1960.
A study of the life and work of Maeterlinck and the influences which affected them, this critical biography sketches a very different Georgette Leblanc from the one Anderson worshipped and praised ecstatically in The Fiery Fountains. Halls blames Leblanc for distracting Maeterlinck from important work to write star vehicles for her own aggrandizement, calling her "difficult to work with," claiming that she had little acting or singing ability and accusing her of infidelity and promiscuity.
Hansen, Harry. Midwest Portraits. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1923.
This celebration of American success stories contains a glowing account of Anderson and her work. Her background as a midwesterner who made good is emphasized in this tribute to famous faces from the early twentieth century, which also deifies Sherwood Anderson and other writers of the period. The Little Review's roots in Chicago and on the shores of Lake Michigan are explored, as Anderson's life amidst her Persian rugs in her lakeside tent is wonderfully illustrated.
Heap, Jane. The Notes of Jane Heap. Edited by Michael Currer-Briggs. London: Currer-Briggs, 1983.
A very limited edition printing of the notes Heap used while teaching Gurdjieff's philosophy in London, published for a select group of disciples and never made available to the general public. Heap's style of communication and absolute devotion to the teachings of Gurdjieff become evident through her notes; her brilliant intellect, so often overshadowed by Anderson's opinions during their period together, makes itself evident as well.
Hecht, Ben. Gaily, Gaily. New York: Doubleday, 1963.
Hecht's life as a Chicago cub reporter in the teens and early twenties brought him into contact with many talented young comers, including Anderson, whom he described as "as elegant and pretty a gal as ever walked our boulevard." Her early crowd, including Sherwood Anderson and Vachel Lindsay, were friends of Hecht's. and her early crowd. His hilarious memoir gives a lucid picture of the newspapers, courtrooms, back alleys, fashionable parties, and bohemia emerging in Chicago during the artistic Renaissance and the rise of the Little Review.
_____. Letters From Bohemia. New York: Doubleday, 1964.
Hecht's nostalgic memoir of the great men and women of his generation, including most of the Little Review crowd. Hecht and his artist friends delighted in bawdy letters and preposterous behavior, which Hecht gleefully recounts. His descriptions of Anderson are glowing with admiration.
Hemingway, Ernest. Ernest Hemingway: Selected Letters 1917-1961. Edited by Carlos Baker. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1981.
A fascinating view of Hemingway and his associates through their correspondence. Hemingway comments on Anderson ("a beautiful and charming gal") and her upsetting mimicry of him in My Thirty Years' War, and on the Little Review. Includes the letter he enclosed with the money for her passage to New York.
_____. A Moveable Feast. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1964.
"Sketches of the Author's Life in Paris in the Twenties." Hemingway's account of the exiles, artistic and otherwise, includes the origin of the phrase "lost generation" and a great deal of other trivia about the times. The Paris and the people of the Little Review are drawn by a master.
Hills, Mathilda M., ed. Forbidden Fires. Tallahassee: Naiad, 1996.
Professor Hills edited and included a thorough introduction to Anderson's novella, filling in gaps in Anderson's autobiography and revealing her own connection to the manuscript through a relationship with one who had been in Anderson's circle.
Hoffman, Frederick J. The Twenties: American Writing in the Postwar Decade. New York: Free Press, 1962.
An important reference book on writing and publishing in the Twenties. Naturally discusses the impact of the Little Review in galvanizing the avant-garde, putting forward new writers and experimenting with many new "isms". Credits Anderson with making major advances in the promotion of gifted writers.
_____; Allen, Charles; and Ulrich, Carolyn. The Little Magazine: A History and Bibliography. Princeton: Princeton, 1947.
A thoroughly researched, documented and engaging study of the little magazine, which discusses the contents and impact of the journals by small presses. An invaluable reference source for journalism, writing, and publishing in the Twenties, the period during which the little magazine first began to flourish, this book contains a thorough index of hundreds of little magazines. Credits the Little Review with a great deal of influence on the style and creativity of the little magazine; admires the risks Anderson took. Also discusses many of the Little Review's rivals and critics, including the Dial and many Chicago-based publications with which Anderson had connections.
Hulme, Kathryn. Undiscovered Country. Boston: Little, Brown, 1966.
Hulme's account of her studies of Gurdjieff's teachings with Anderson and Heap at the Gurdjieff Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man. She and Anderson became close friends and retained a correspondence for many years. Her autobiography illustrates the effects of Gurdjieff's teachings on the thoughts and lifestyles of his followers and contains intimate memories of Anderson, Heap, Leblanc, and many of their twenties associates.
Hutchens, John K., ed. The American Twenties: A Literary Panorama. New York: Lippincott, 1952.
Poetry, prose, and essays from the American literary renaissance. The Little Review is praised in general in the editor's introduction, but condemned for cultivating and promoting foreign writers at the expense of American writers. A very interesting look at the American twenties independent of the European twenties.
Imbs, Bravig. Confessions of Another Young Man. New York: Henkle- Yewdale, 1936.
A highly amusing account of several figures from Paris in the 1920's, including Antheil and Stein. Credits the Little Review with providing the hype that made them and other artistic heroes known around the world.
Jacobus, Mary. Reading Woman: Essays in Feminist Criticism. New York: Columbia, 1986.
A critique of the various critical methods used in interpreting women's writing and men's writing about women; useful in theorizing the extent to which the Little Review's radical feminism works in relation to Pound's patriarchy.
Kannenstine, Louis. The Art of Djuna Barnes. New York: New York University, 1977.
Subtitled "Duality and Damnation," this analysis of Barnes' work compares Barnes and Anderson as "independent expatriated women" and comments on her refusal to answer Anderson's questions for the final issue of the Little Review. A fascinating of Barnes' relationship to the Lost Generation, despite her reluctance to associate herself with any literary movement.
Katz, Jonathan Ned. The Gay/Lesbian Almanac. New York: Harper, 1983.
A history, biography and bibliography of gay life throughout the ages, including an account of Paris in the Twenties and containing notes from Anderson's essay on Kraft-Ebing's theories of homosexuality.
Kazin, Alfred. An American Procession. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984.
This study of major American writers from 1830 to 1930 -- "the crucial century" -- lauds the importance of the Little Review and particularly the pioneering efforts by Anderson to promote fiction that no other journal would publish. It also examines the fiction of the period, including a detailed discussion of the real people behind the fictional characters in John Dos Passos' U.S.A. trilogy. A fascinating critical work.
_____. On Native Ground. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1942.
In his analysis of American prose, Kazin comments on Anderson's contributions, enthusiasm and talent. He accuses her of being scatterbrained but credits the Little Review with the introduction of many literary trends.
Kennedy, J. Gerald. Imagining Paris: Exile, Writing, and American Identity. New Haven: Yale University, 1994.
The Paris of Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway, Henry Miller, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Djuna Barnes and their expatriate identities was also the Paris of Anderson and Heap.
Kenner, Hugh. The Pound Era. Berkeley: University of California, 1971.
Pound's influence on the Little Review, Anderson and Heap, and almost everything and everyone else. Kenner implies that Heap and Pound were adversaries for creative control of the magazine.
Keohane, Nannerl O., Michelle Z. Rosaldo, and Barbara C. Gelpi, eds. Feminist Theory: A Critique of Ideology. Chicago: Chicago, 1981.
Superb essays on feminist ideologies and ideologies surrounding feminism, including Myra Jehlen's "Archimedes and the Paradox of Feminist Criticism" and several essays in response to Adrienne Rich's "Compulsory Heterosexuality . . . "
Klaich, Dolores. Woman Plus Woman: Attitudes Toward Lesbianism. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974.
Chapters on "The Belle Epoque" of Renee Vivien, Natalie Clifford Barney, and Colette, and on the 1920's discuss Anderson's Little Review friends and associates and the climate they lived in. Discussions on lesbians in the literature of the 1920's and the "tell-all" tendencies of some accounts of lesbian lives are particularly timely and apt.
Kramer, Dale. Chicago Renaissance: The Literary Life in the Midwest 1900- 1930. New York: Appleton-Century, 1966.
Dale Kramer knew Floyd Dell back in the early days of the Dial, and hence knew Margaret in her pre-Little Review days. Here she is gallavanting around Chicago raising money, attracting men, having a blast and making a name for herself. Lots of pages.
Leblanc, Georgette. La Machine a Courage. Paris: J.B. Janin, 1947.
The second volume of Leblanc's memoirs, never translated into English, portrays the author's life with Anderson after her separation from acclaimed playwright Maurice Maeterlinck. Her account of her period with Gurdjieff gives a more simplified portrayal of the master's teachings than other works by more renowned critics on the philosopher. Leblanc presents Anderson in her later years, reflects on her youth and success, and reveals her personality through intimate anecdotes. Leblanc also reveals a great deal of herself, giving the reader a glimpse of what Anderson perceived to be "a perfect soul."
_____. Souvenirs: My Life With Maeterlinck. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1932.
The first volume of Leblanc's memoirs presents the author in her youth, career as a singer, and marriage to the great playwright, leading up to her separation from Maeterlinck and her meeting with Anderson. Written while she and Anderson lived together in a lighthouse in France, the book reveals Leblanc's generosity and greatness of spirit and helps explain why Anderson worshipped her for twenty years.
Lohf, Kenneth A., and Sheehy, Eugene P., eds. An Index to the Little Review, 1914 - 1929. New York: The New York Public Library, 1961.
A complete index to the Little Review by author and title. Compiled by two thorough researchers, the writers, artists and art of the magazine are neatly catalogued and cross-referenced; the works included in the Little Review Anthology are included as well. A superb introductory essay gives a general overview of the accomplishments of Anderson and the magazine.
Longstreet, Stephen. We All Went To Paris. New York; Macmillan, 1972.
"Americans in the City of Light: 1776-1971" included Anderson and most of her contemporaries. Several superb chapters on Stein, Hemingway, Beach, Barney, Isadora Duncan, Cole Porter, Caresse Crosby, and all the rest illustrate the town and the unique charm it seems to have held for Americans throughout the centuries.
Lynn, Kenneth S. Hemingway. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987.
A biographer asks the controversial question, "Was Hemingway a mama's boy?" and, by revealing hitherto unknown secrets about his boyhood, claims that it was likely. Anderson is mentioned only incidentally in a discussion about the number of homosexuals in Paris; the Little Review is discussed in somewhat more detail.
McHenry, Robert. Famous American Women. New York: Dover, 1980.
1035 biographies of American notables, including Anderson, Lowell, and other figures associated with the Little Review. The article on Anderson discusses her foundation of the magazine and publication and defense of Ulysses, but says little about her life after its demise.
Marek, Jayne E. Women Editing Modernism: 'Little' Magazines and Literary History. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1995.
An examination of the roles of seven prominent Modernist women, including Anderson and Heap, Monroe, and H.D. and Bryher, altering sex-biased assumptions and reassessing Ezra Pound's overall influence.
Mariani, Paul. William Carlos Williams: A New World Naked. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.
This exuberant, entertaining description of Williams' life and work chronicles his work with the Little Review and includes letters to Anderson. The author praises Anderson and Heap as well and discusses some of the triumphs of the magazine.
Marsh, Margaret S. Anarchist Women: 1870-1920. Philadelphia: Temple University, 1981.
The lives of famous anarchists of Anderson's time, including Emma Goldman and Harriet Dean, an early friend of Anderson's who was one of the original publishers of the Little Review. The book discusses Anderson's background, reasons for becoming an anarchist, politics, feminism, sexual preference, and friendship with Goldman.
May, Henry, ed. The Discontent of the American Intellectuals: A Problem of the Twenties. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1963.
An analysis of the rise of controversial beliefs and avant-garde art in the Twenties from the Berkeley Series in American History. Commentary by psychologists, writers and historians alike. A very interesting look at the connection between the cultural disillusionment with politics, art, and intellect.
Mellow, James R. Charmed Circle: Gertrude Stein and Company. New York: Avon, 1974.
This account of Stein's coterie contains amusing descriptions of and stories about nearly all of the expatriate Paris crowd, including Anderson and Heap. Mellow's depiction of a fur-laden, perfume-scented Anderson arousing the disdain of the formidable Stein is quite amusing. He also discusses Heap's friendship with Stein.
Moore, James. Gurdjieff and Mansfield. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980.
An extremely thorough study of the bizarre relationship between Gurdjieff and author Katherine Mansfield, one of his earliest and most fervent disciples, told from the perspective of a bemused skeptic. Moore reflects ironically on the appeal of Gurdjieff to intellectuals; in a chapter about the mystic's allure, entitled "Cultural Bon Ton," he illustrates Anderson and Heap's rapid "entanglement" in the Gurdjieff circle.
Mott, Luther J. A History of American Magazines. Volume V: Sketches of 21 Magazines, 1905-1930. Cambridge: Harvard, 1968.
A chapter on the Little Review completed by John T. Frederick after the death of Mott presents the bacground and development of the magazine. Neatly condensed and well researched, the article offers a useful summary of the magazine's accomplishments.
Newton, Judith, and Deborah Rosenfelt, eds. Feminist Criticism and Social Change. New York: Methuen, 1985.
A book of essays on poststructuralist feminist theory which offers food for thought on materialist feminism, "art for art's sake," Radclyffe Hall's creation of (and within) a patriarchal psychoanalytic system for studying lesbianism, and more.
Norman, Charles. Ezra Pound. New York: Macmillan, 1960.
A fascinating account of Pound's life, work, and impact on the literary community, including a report on his influences on Eliot and Joyce and a description of the Little Review community, Anderson and Heap.
Nott, C. S. The Teachings of Gurdjieff: A Pupil's Journal. York Beach: Samuel Weiser, 1961.
Nott's account of studying Gurdjieff with Heap and with other disciples. He discusses the workings of Gurdjieff's inner circle and the contributions of Heap to his studies.
Ostriker, Alicia Suskin. Stealing the Language: The Emergence of Women's Poetry in America. Boston: Beacon, 1986.
Discusses the impact of several Little Review-era women poets on each other and on later writers. Negotiates feminine erotics and feminist politics in an attempt to synthesize a theory of women's writing.
Ouspensky, P.D. (Peter Demianovich). Tertium Organum. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982.
The first of the Gurdjieff/Ouspensky philosophical treatises read by Anderson and Heap, Ouspensky's reassesment of human intellect, curiosity, emotion and sexuality, as well as his reevaluation of the vast capabilities of the human mind, attracted the Little Review editors during a period of extreme dissatisfaction with their lives.
Perrett, Geoffrey. America in the Twenties. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982.
Read all about it -- politics, art, literature, social trends, etcetera -- in this discussion of many of the issues, events, and trends dealt with in the Little Review, which sadly does not discuss the magazine itself. One critic praises its attempt to dispel the myths set forward in Dos Passos' U.S.A. and Allen's Only Yesterday. The superb indexing of the book makes it an excellent starting point for further research on the Twenties.
Perry, Whitall N. Gurdjieff in the Light of Tradition. Middlesex: Perennial, 1978.
An independent critical study of Gurdjieff's life and work by a thorough researcher and analyst. He discusses the need of serious intellectuals for spiritual guidance and the appeal of Gurdjieff to people such as Anderson and Heap.
Peters, Fritz (Arthur Anderson). Boyhood With Gurdjieff. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1964.
Anderson and Heap brought Anderson's nephew Fritz and his brother Tom to Paris when their mother, Anderson's socialite sister Lois Peters, was hospitalized; they were later adopted by Heap and brought up at the Gurdjieff Institute at Fontainbleau, while Gertrude Stein and Alice Toklas supervised their upbringing and conventional education. Peters discusses life with his aunt, his mentors, and the legendary philosopher, revealing the erratic aspects of their extremist personalities and fanatical devotions, attempting to come to terms with his unconventional childhood.
_____. Gurdjieff Remembered. York Beach: Samuel Weiser, 1982.
Peters reflects upon his unconventional upbringing and attempts to come to terms with his turbulent relationships with his parents, Anderson and Heap, and Gurdjieff. Although no longer a disciple, Peters cannot bring himself to renounce Gurdjieff's teachings with the vehemence of other former students.
Pound, Ezra. The Letters of Ezra Pound: 1907-1941. Ed. D. D. Paige. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1950.
The world according to Ezra; Pound's overwhelming personality revealed through his overwhelming, and often incomprehensible, letters. Many of his notes to "M.C.A." and her associates tell them in no uncertain terms what they should do and think.
_____. Pound/The Little Review: The Letters if Ezra Pound to Margaret Anderson: The Little Review Correspondence. Ed. Thomas L. Scott and Melvin J. Friedman with Jackson R. Bryer. New York: New Directions, 1988.
The complete letters of Pound to Anderson, complete with his opinions on Ulysses from draft to trial and his occasional tirades against women, Americans, poetry, Jane, Margaret, the Baronness, Amy Lowell, H.D., and whatever or whomever he decided was destroying arts and letters. Lots of fun.
Prince, Sue Ann, ed. The Old Guard and the Avant-Garde: Modernism in Chicago, 1910-1940. Chicago: Chicago, 1990.
This regional history of the rise of Modernism includes Susan Noyes Platt's "The Little Review: Early Years and Avant-Garde Ideas" and other essays on the intellectual climate during the era when Anderson founded her magazine.
Rogers, W.G. Ladies Bountiful. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1968.
A history of the modern benefactress, focusing in particular on the literary angels of the 1920's who kept art and literature alive. Anderson and Heap, Beach, Barney, Flanner, Stein, and many others are included. Although Rogers is hyper- patronizing, his histories of the lives and accomplishments of the lives of these women are useful.
Rood, Karen L. American Literary Almanac: From 1608 to the Present. New York: Facts on File, 1988.
Lots of trivia about American literature, including funny anecdotes about many of the Little Review-period writers and the history of Ulysses in America. MCA appears in several spots.
Rule, Jane. Lesbian Images. London: Peter Davies, 1976.
This book by a gifted and successful lesbian writer on lesbian and feminist writers of the early twentieth century has a chapter on Anderson and another on Gertrude Stein, both of which discuss the Little Review. Rule offers an interesting perspective on these women, as neither was particularly enamored of the feminist movement and both shunned the label "lesbian." Rule discusses Anderson's upbringing, which Anderson herself dismisses quickly in her autobiography, in detail; it speculates on the forces which shaped her character and probes into the feminist leanings which led her to found her own magazine and establish lasting relationships with women. Focusing on Anderson herself rather than her work, Rule helps to clarify the tensions in her private life which contributed to her increasing frustration with her life and her work. The speculation and commentary are well-written and insightful.
Simon, Linda. The Biography of Alice B. Toklas. New York: Avon, 1978.
The real Alice, as opposed to Stein's alter ego, is presented in this intriguing biography, which brings Toklas out from the shadow of the formidable Stein and reflects on her life and loves. Toklas' own attitudes on Anderson and Heap and her recollections of Anderson's nephew Peters are included, as well as her commentary on the Little Review and other such magazines. Toklas knew everyone Stein knew, and tended to be more generous than her companion in her judgements of them.
Spacks, Patricia Meyer. The Female Imagination. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975.
A psychological analysis -- or, rather, attack -- on many literary women, including Anderson, who is quoted at the beginning of a chapter entitled "The Artist as Woman." Spacks attacks Anderson as a dilettante and worse a failed artist; her "life of art," she asserts, existed only within her own large ego, and her life was based on a desire to remain in control. Though Spacks attempts to characterize Anderson's feminism, she pointedly avoids discussing her lesbianism, calling Georgette Leblanc a "beloved friend," and she gives no account of the extent to which Anderson was admired by writers, artists, revolutionaries and celebrities. Her account is at best incomplete.
Stein, Gertrude. The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1933.
Stein's outrageous account of her life in Paris in the Twenties, told through the eyes and in the style of her longtime companion Toklas, contains anecdotes about many writers and Stein's opinions of Anderson ("uninteresting") and Heap ("delightful"). Fact and opinion mix in this superb collection of Stein's observations on art and life.
_____. Everybody's Autobiography. New York: Random House, 1937.
Stein's sequel to Alice B. Toklas reflects on Paris after the Twenties, when many of the expatriate artists had begun to return home, and reflects upon her own voyage to her native America as a celebrity. She complains about the violence of the world and the absence of intellect in America, but remains the same outrageous gossip and analyst of the earlier work. Several of Anderson and Heap's literary associates are discussed in detail.
Stock, Noel. The Life of Ezra Pound. New York: Pantheon, 1970.
Stock's "detailed and balanced" account of Pound's life discusses Pound's influence on the Little Review and presents some of his work published therein. Contains Anderson's comments on Pound, Pound's comments on Anderson, Pound's opinions about absolutely everything, and the author's opinions about Pound, none of which are terribly favorable.
Symons, Julian. Makers of the New: The Revolution in Literature 1912- 1939. New York: Random House, 1987.
Symons explores Modernism from the perspective that Eliot, Joyce, Pound and Lewis singlehandedly created the movement through their relationships with one another and with other artists. An interesting perspective, but one which belittles the contributions of black writers, non-Anglophiles and particularly women, who are treated here as "Ladies Bountiful" rather than the artists and intellectuals who spearheaded the cultural Renaissance. He seems to forget that without Anderson, Beach and Weaver, there would have been no 'Ulysses' despite Joyce's genius and Pound's persistent support.
Tebbel, John. The American Magazine: A Compact History. New York: Hawthorn, 1969.
A very compact history of American magazines, which devotes too little time to individual publications but neatly summarizes accomplishments made over long periods such as the twenties. The Little Review's impact is duly noted and appreciated.
Toklas, Alice. Staying On Alone: Letters of Alice B. Toklas. Edited by Edward Burns. New York: Liveright, 1973.
Toklas comments on Anderson in two letters, in which she sounds disdainful and not particularly fond of her. Her true feelings can be found in letters to Anderson in the Janet Flanner/Solita Solano collection at the Library of Congress, in which Toklas professes to have judged Anderson hastily. The two women became close friends after the death of Stein, who never appreciated and was never friendly toward Anderson.
_____. What Is Remembered. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1963.
The real autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, written after Stein's death. She recalls her and Stein's life much the same way and in much the same manner as Stein; however, she reveals aspects of Stein's personality Stein herself could not comment upon. Among other things, she recalls the Little Review. A warm, nostalgic memoir.
Tomkins, Calvin. Living Well Is the Best Revenge. New York: Viking, 1962.
Tomkins' account of life in Paris and America with the Fitzgeralds, Stein and Toklas, Picasso, Hemingway, and many other figures associated with the Little Review. He provides intimate accounts of the art, literature, society, and decadence which shaped the decade.
Torrey, E. Fuller, M.D. The Roots of Treason. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984.
A doctor's account of Pound's "insanity" which finds him neither insane nor exonerable. This study of Pound's work and escapades focuses on his feigned breakdown during World War II and his "salon" at St. Elizabeth's, discussing his Little Review editorship, his uneasy collaboration with Anderson and Heap and the bitter arguments they had over certain writers, and life in the Twenties.
Wasserman, Emily. The American Scene: Early Twentieth Century. New York: Lamplight, 1975.
This superbly illustrated volume in the Lamplight Collection of Modern Art series contains an analysis of early twentieth century art, including a detailed look at the Armory Show and speculation as to its longterm effects on American artists. An excellent survey of the trends and triumphs of the period, spotlighting many artists published in the Little Review.
Wasserstrom, William. A Dial Miscellany. Syracuse: Syracuse, 1963.
An anthology of work published in The Dial, "that other magazine" as fans of the Little Review used to call it, which published many of the same writers and artists including Pound, Stein, Lowell, Eliot, and others. Anderson wrote reviews for The Dial when she needed money to publish the Little Review, and its editor once gave her a hundred dollars for a subscription. This anthology, including some excellent letters by foreign correspondents, is a superb survey of the Little Review's competition.
Webb, James. The Harmonious Circle. New York: J. P. Putnam's Sons, 1980.
The life and work of Gurdjieff, Ouspensky, and their followers. This comprehensive study presents Anderson and Heap at the time when they began to study Gurdjieff and to become content with their lives for the first time since the peak period of the Little Review. It discusses the impact of the art and philosophy of the magazine in the light of Gurdjieff's teachings, and points out some of the self-destructive tendencies in avant-garde art. This history colors Heap's background and character, which she herself disliked discussing, in more detail than any other account; the demons which drove her to devote her future to Gurdjieff become evident when her past is revealed.
West, Ray B., Jr. The Short Story in America: 1910-1950. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1952.
A companion to Achievement in American Poetry in the 20th Century Literature in America series. The merits and problems of various literary magazines of the Twenties compared with their counterparts of the Forties. The Little Review is credited as a trendsetter. Presents the history of journals and some of their problems.
Wexler, Alice. Emma Goldman: An Intimate Life. New York: Pantheon, 1984.
A very intimate portrait of Goldman, including a complete account of her political and social life and most of her relationships, no matter how bizarre. Gives an account of the anarchic tendencies of the Little Review. Discusses Anderson in her early days, when she fell under Goldman's sphere of influence. Speculates on the nature and intensity of Goldman's feelings for Anderson, citing letters Goldman wrote to her husband, and the depth of their tempestuous friendship.
Whittemore, Reed. William Carlos Williams: Poet From Jersey. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975.
Whittemore's admirable biography discusses all aspects of Williams' life, work and art. It includes commentary on both the Little Review and its editors, not entirely complimentary. The atmosphere of the times is discussed in relation to a man who refused to subscribe to many of its fads.
Wickes, George. Americans In Paris. New York: Da Capo, 1969.
A fantastic account of the lives of Anderson and Heap, Hemingway and Pound, Dos Passos and Stein, the Dadaists, the Marxists, the Imagists and all the rest, as riots and revelry enlivened the lives of authors and artists. Wickes credits Anderson with creating a riot at a concert to be filmed as a scene in a Leblanc film. A superb study of the anxiety, art, and artists of the period, as well as a supremely entertaining story.
Williams, Ellen. Harriet Monroe and the Poetry Renaissance. Chicago: University of Illinois, 1977.
A biography of Harriet Monroe and discussion of the first ten years of Poetry, the Chicago periodical which helped pave the way for the Little Review in 1914. The climate surrounding the Chicago literary renaissance is presented; Anderson's style of editorship is contrasted with that of Monroe, perhaps her only true peer in the literary world; and the influence of Pound, who served as an editor of both publications, on the arts in general, is analyzed. An excellent exploration of the conditions surrounding the rise of the little magazine in bohemian Chicago.
Williams, William Carlos. The Autobiography of William Carlos Williams. New York: Random House, 1948.
Williams, whose superb poetry was published in early issues of the Little Review, writes with a unique perspective on the literary society of Greenwich Village because he had a life apart from it, as a doctor in suburban New Jersey. He knew Anderson and Heap quite well in the early days, and gives an amusing account of their domestic life. His discussion of why he chose not to go to Paris when many of her generation exiled themselves is quite telling. His clear, unbiased outlook on the art and artists of the period and his hilarious memory for outrageous detail concerning the people and pace of life surrounding the magazine render his memoir enjoyable and informative.
Wineapple, Brenda. Genet: A Biography of Janet Flanner. New York: Ticknor and Fields, 1989.
A wonderful biography of Anderson's longtime friend, containing page after page of anecdotes, quotes, and correspondences from MCA. Frankly discusses the lesbianism of both women and its effect on their friendship as well as their work.
Wiser, William. The Crazy Years: Paris in the Twenties. New York: Atheneum, 1983.
A lavishly illustrated, energetically written account of the postwar chaos and American invasion of Parisian culture, literary life, and social establishments in which Anderson entrenched herself. The Little Review is mentioned only briefly, but a chapter on Gurdjieff and other mystics gives insight into the rise of spiritualism among disillusioned expatriates. Amusing accounts, taken from autobiographies, of Hemingway's drinking, Cummings' loss of virginity, Stravinsky's riots, and other novelties add to the charm of the book.
Anderson, Margaret C., founding editor. The Little Review. Chicago: March 1914 - May 1916. San Francisco: June - September 1916. Chicago: November 1916 - January 1917. New York: February 1917 - August 1926. Paris: August 1926 - May 1929.
"A magazine of the arts, making no compromise with the public taste." Co-edited by Jane Heap, Ezra Pound, John Rodker, and Francis Picabia. The legendary literary phenomenon, featuring the fiction of Ernest Hemingway, Djuna Barnes, and Wyndham Lewis; the art of Pablo Picasso, Man Ray, and Marcel Duchamps; the poetry of T.S. Eliot, Hart Crane, and William Carlos Williams; the essays of Ezra Pound, Gertrude Stein, and Ben Hecht; the social commentary of Emma Goldman and Tristan Tzara; the inimitable editorials by Anderson, Heap and Pound; the publication, scandal, and censorship battle of James Joyce's Ulysses; and a great deal more. One of the most important little magazines in American literature.
Thayer, Scofield, founding editor. The Dial. New York: 1918 - 1929.
The Dial, originally founded by Ralph Waldo Emerson and Margaret Fuller in 1840, was reformed and became in the 1920's one of the most important little magazines in American literary history. Marianne Moore, Ezra Pound, Thomas Mann, Jose Ortega y Gasset, and Jean Cocteau, among others, served on the staff; Margaret Anderson at one time wrote book reviews to support her own struggling young magazine. Many Little Review contributors wrote or edited for the Dial, and the Little Review ran advertisements on its pages. Worthy competition for the Little Review.
Anderson, Margaret C. "The Art of Prose." Prose, Fall 1970 (1).
Anderson on prose as it is and as it should be; as usual, music, conversation, and other seemingly unrelated topics figure in Anderson's discussion, complementing and complicating the definition. An unusually thought out, interesting restatement of Anderson's definition of and search for beauty in writing.
_____. "Chambre d'Hotel." Prose, Fall 1973 (7).
A very moving piece about happiness, unhappiness, reality, fantasy, beauty, aging, loneliness, love and memory. Anderson offers a rare glimpse of herself in pain and despair, before her indomitable spirit recalls to her the beauty of her art and her life.
_____. "Conversation." Prose, Spring 1971 (2).
Anderson on the sort of "great conversation" which impelled her to found the Little Review, particularly that of her three longtime friends and associates Heap, Leblanc and Caruso. Although the essay contains little new information about the women or Anderson's taste in conversation, it offers another intriguing glimpse into the peculiar workings of Anderson's mind.
_____. "The Little Review." The Harvard Advocate, Winter 1973, Volume CVI 2:3.
An essay for a special issue of The Harvard Advocate on "the feminine sensibility." Anderson describes the "feminine" nature of the conversation and writing of her three great friends, Heap, Leblanc and Caruso. A very interesting perspective on the women, who usually resented being set apart simply because they were women.
Anderson, Sherwood. "Real-Unreal." The New Republic, 11 June 1930.
Mr. Anderson's intensely personal, adoring memoir of Miss Anderson, masquerading as a review of My Thirty Years' War. The article tells more about Sherwood than about Margaret or her book, but the author's passionate anecdotes and loving descriptions of M. C. A. are delightful and convincing in the portrait they present.
Associated Press. "Jane Heap Dead; Was Editor Here." The New York Times, 23 June 1964 (33:1).
This obituary discusses Heap's accomplishments as an editor and writer but fails to reflect upon her childhood and never mentions the important, lengthy period of her life in London during which she taught Gurdjieff's work. A brief tribute rather than a retrospective on Heap's life.
Atlas, Marilyn J. "Harriet Monroe, Margaret Anderson, and the Spirit of the Chicago Renaissance." Midwestern Miscellany 9:43 (1981).
A midwestern perspective on Anderson's early life and career.
_____. "Margaret C. Anderson." Dictionary of Midwestern Literature, Volume One: The Authors. Ed. Philip A. Greasley. Bloomington: Indiana University, 2001. 37-40.
A brief but thorough biography of Anderson -- one of the few to include information about her romance with Gladys Tilden and her lesbian novel Forbidden Fires.
Baggett, Holly. "Someone to Talk our Language: Jane Heap, Margaret Anderson and the Little Review in Chicago." Modern American Queer History. Philadelphia: Temple University, 2001. 24-35.
By the editor of Jane Heap's letters, an analysis of the magazine's gay aesthetics.
Bates, Robin. "Much Ado About James Joyce and His Ulysses." Smithsonian 20:12 (March 1990).
The scandal of Ulysses' various publications, the academy's use and abuse of Joyce and his text, and the controversy over which edition, if any. can be called "definitive." The story of the Little Review's various Ulysses crises is faithfully told.
Blau, Eleanor, and the Associated Press. "Margaret Anderson Dies at 82." The New York Times, 20 October 1973 (34:2).
Blau's obituary praises Anderson's accomplishments as a literary editor but ignores her work with Gurdjieff, and only casually mentions her writing while eagerly discussing her good looks and giddy personality. Focusing itself largely on other people's comments about her, rather than quoting the source herself and giving people a last glimpse of her, the article seems a rather terse notice of death for a woman who deserved a more extensive tribute.
Bryer, Jackson Robert. "Joyce, Ulysses, and the Little Review." The South Atlantic Quarterly, Spring 1967, Volume LXVI, Number 2.
Bryer examines the causes and results of the censorship of Joyce. He suggests that the censorship trial itself paved the way for the acceptance of Ulysses in print in 1933, crediting Anderson, Heap and lawyer John Quinn with preparing the censors for the novel. He also discusses the formidable past histories and talents of Joyce and the editors.
Edelstein, J.M. "Exuberance and Ecstasy." The New Republic, 13 June 1970.
A review of the three volumes of Anderson's autobiography and The Little Review Anthology by a fan of Anderson's who obviously has much more interest in her Little Review lifestyle and accomplishments than her later life. The witty My Thirty Years' War receives more attention and praise than her more introspective later books.
Flanner, Janet. "A Life on a Cloud." The New Yorker, 3 June 1974.
Flanner, who called Anderson "Lolly" and was a friend of hers for several decades, discusses Anderson's life, work, and impact in this profile written shortly after Anderson's death in 1973. Flanner's insights into Anderson's psyche, talents, art, background, friendships, loves, and enthusiasms offer a rare well-rounded portrait of the "last surviving great female editor of her generation." Herself an extremely gifted writer, Flanner reveals tremendous admiration and affection for Anderson.
Hills, Mathilda M. "Anderson, Margaret Carolyn, Nov. 24, 1886 - Oct. 19, 1973." Notable American Women: The Modern Period. Ed. Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green. Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1980.
Three pages are devoted to Anderson in this biographical survey of well-known modern American women. Her relationships with Heap and Leblanc are discussed in a speculative detail avoided in other accounts of her life, as is her rarely-mentioned novella This Thing Called Love. Hills' bibliography, which she compiled over several years while working on a biography of Anderson, is superb.
Johnson, Abby Ann Arthur. "The Personal Magazine: Margaret C. Anderson and the Little Review." The South Atlantic Quarterly, Summer 1976, Volume 75:3.
The Little Review as Anderson's personal experiment, "reflecting the editor's personality on every page." The article is scholarly and convincing but unfortunately not as amusing and fascinating as Anderson herself.
Josephson, Matthew. "The War For Modern Art." Nation, 18 June 1930.
A review of My Thirty Years' War which discusses Anderson's life and accomplishments and praises her inconsistent but supremely individualistic writing style. A good, concise look at Anderson's early life and work.
Kazin, Alfred. "A Life Led As a Work of Art." The New York Times Book Review, 16 August 1970.
A review of the three volumes of Anderson's autobiography and retrospective on her life and accomplishments by one of America's foremost literary historians. He praises her books as unscholarly but extremely interesting and energetically written and expresses admiration for her courage and strength through difficult obstacles.
Kronenberger, Louis. "The Little Review's Founder Tells Its Story and Her Own." The New York Times Book Review, 25 May 1930.
A review of the original edition of My Thirty Years' War, which praises Anderson and her magazine more than it praises her writing, but expresses amusement and delight at her anecdotes and assertions.
May, Anne C. "The Kathryn Hulme Collection." Yale University Library Gazette, Volume LIII (3), January 1979.
An article on the Kathryn Hulme Collection at Yale, which includes extensive correspondence between Hulme and Anderson. The two met at a Gurdjieff institute and continued to communicate about their personal evolutions for years to come.
Platt, Susan Noyes. "The Little Review: Early Years and Avant-Garde Ideas." The Old Guard and the Avant-Garde: Modernism in Chicago, 1910-1940. Ed. Sue Ann Prince. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1990.
The founding and early years of the magazine in the context of Chicago intellectual development during Anderson's era.
Pound, Ezra. "Ezra Pound and The Little Review: Letters to John Quinn." Ed. Timothy Materer. Scripsi 5:4 (1989): 1-26.
The letters of Pound to John Quinn surrounding the Ulysses trial; sheds light on how much importance he placed on the magazine, the extent to which he trusted Anderson as an editor, and the direction he planned for the future of the journal.
Trachtenberg, Alan. "The Art and Design of the Machine Age." The New York Times, 21 September 1986 (VI: 62).
An article on the history and impact of Machine Age Exhibitions, beginning with the Little Review exhibition of 1924 and ending with a Brooklyn Museum show of 1986. Quotes Heap on the importance of the engineer's work with and effect on the artist.
Woolf, Geoffrey. "Great Lady." Newsweek, 25 May 1970.
This very favorable review of the three volumes of Anderson's autobiography heaps praises on Anderson's writing and personality, discusses her background and her work, and reflects on the achievements of the Little Review. A writer's perspective on the editor herself as an object d'art.
New York Times Articles:
"The Art and Design of the Machine Age." 21 September 1986, 6:62.
"A Life Led As a Work of Art." 16 August 1970, 6:1.
"Little Review in Court." 15 February 1921, 4:3.
"The Little Review's Founder Tells Its Story and Her Own." 25 May 1930, 6:2.
"Improper Novel Costs Women $100." 22 February 1921, 13:5.
"Taste, Not Morals, Violated." Editorial. 23 February 1921, 12:5.
"Jane Heap Dead; Was Editor Here." Obituary. 23 June 1964, 33:1.
"Margaret Anderson Dies At 82." Obituary. 20 October 1973, 34:2.
The Djuna Barnes Papers. College Park: University of Maryland Library.
Letters, manuscripts, and rare published editions of Barnes' work, including her Little Review pieces and the biting Ladies' Almanack, are housed in this extensive collection, which has an enthusiastic and knowledgeable curator. Letters to, from, and about Anderson and Heap are included, plus copies of Barnes' work published in the Little Review.
The Florence Reynolds Collection. New Castle: University of Delaware Library.
Letters of Reynolds and Jane Heap, from before Heap knew Anderson through the former's death during Heap's years as a Gurdjieff disciple. There is a great deal of information about Heap and Anderson's private lives and quarrels, plus discussions and disagreements about the Little Review.
The Gertrude Stein Collection. New Haven: Yale University Library.
The world's most complete collection of Stein's manuscripts, books, correspondence, and the papers she saved over many years. Includes the questionnaire Anderson and Heap sent out for the final issue of the Little Review, which has Stein's answers scribbled on it. Also includes correspondence discussing Anderson and Heap and a few brief letters between Stein, Toklas and Heap.
The Janet Flanner/Solita Solano Papers. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress.
The letters, diaries, books, manuscripts and other documents of Flanner, Solano, and many of their associates. Flanner and Solano seem to have known everyone; nearly all the expatriate writers, famous lesbians from Natalie Barney's circle, Stein's crowd, Pound's crowd, journalists, wealthy society personalities, theater personalities, opera stars, artists, bohemians, political activists and just about anyone else has a folder in this marvelous collection. Anderson's personal letters, correspondence with her publishers, and comments on other people's letters, as well as a journal she kept late in life and articles Solano collected about her, can be found here. For any study of expatriate Paris in the twenties and thirties, this collection is a gold mine.
The Kathryn Hulme Collection. New Haven: Yale University Library.
Early editions of Hulme's books, including The Nun's Story and Undiscovered Country, as well as her notes on Gurdjieff and letters to associates, can be found in this collection. Correspondence between Hulme and Anderson as well as letters from others which mention Anderson are also on file.
The Little Review Collection. New York: New York Public Library.
This collection includes Lohf and Sheehy's index to the Little Review, as well as correspondence, photographs and documents pertaining to the magazine. A superb place to research the Little Review in its Greenwich Village days and research accounts of the Ulysses trial, the New York library also has letters and proofs from other magazines and from many writers and artists who later left New York for Paris.
The Little Review Collection. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin Library.
In addition to papers, proofs and letters from the Little Review in its Midwestern days, the Wisconsin library contains Anderson's writing from her days a book reviewer for the Chicago Evening Post and the Continent as well as information about Floyd Dell, Ben Hecht, and her other early associates. It also holds the papers of Heap and letters from Pound to the Little Review.
The Margaret C. Anderson Collection. London: Michael Currer-Briggs Collection.
An enormous collection of Anderson's published and unpublished writings, including letters, proofs, manuscripts, and many editions of her books. The writings of Heap, Leblanc and Caruso, as well as certain papers of Solano, plus Anderson's rare manuscript 'This Thing Called Love' and early versions of her articles for Prose. Currer-Briggs was also the executor of Jane Heap's estate and published many of her Gurdjieff pieces. I have never seen a complete listing of precisely what Currer-Briggs possessed, nor where those papers are now.
The Margaret C. Anderson/Elizabeth Jenks Clark Collection. New Haven: Yale University Library.
This collection includes manuscripts of Anderson's major works and correspondence with Flanner, Heap, Leblanc, Hulme, and Solano, as well as the original prints of Man Ray portraits of Picasso, Duchamp, Matisse, Picabia, and Anderson herself, and Berenice Abbott portraits of Jane Heap, Djuna Barnes, James Joyce, Cocteau, and George Antheil.
Other sources may be found at the Houghton Library of Harvard University, the Newberry Library, the Huntington Library, Northwestern University, and the University of Chicago. See also the links page.
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